Influence of Parental messages on the aggressiveness of teenagers

  • Irena Levkova University of Plovdiv. 24 Tsar Assen St. 4000 Plovdiv. Bulgaria
Keywords: Parental messages, Buss-Durkee inventory, Transactional analysis


Aim. The aim of the study is to find what Parental messages (PM) modern Bulgarian teenagers receive in the process of important social and cultural changes in the post-totalitarian society and which ones are ‘responsible’ for the growing aggression in and outside schools. The Parental Messages are statements to the younger generation made by the parents that are transmitted in the socio-psychic and the sociocultural space as undisputable rules, pieces of wisdom and values, i.e. they form both the content of the Parent Ego state and the sociocultural Parent governing the behaviour and the attitude of the people.

Methods. We chose 64 commonly known in the Bulgarian sociocultural space statements which were presented to 284 teenagers aged 14-18 to find out what messages the contemporary teenagers receive from their parents. Then we chose 40 of the teenagers and in addition we tested them with the Buss-Durkee inventory. The Parental messages received by the aggressive and the non-aggressive teenagers were compared.

Results. The study found significant differences in the Parental messages received by the two groups which is a premise for different content of the Parent Ego state and different behavior of the two groups.

Conclusions. The results obtained so far lead to the conclusion that the Parental messages the aggressive adolescents were given from their parents in childhood and continue to be given during adolescence take the form of the content of the Parent Ego state and in this case a Parent who is able to directly realise itself in aggressive behaviour because this is the behaviour which is ‘allowed’ by the parents (mainly by the fathers). Parents teach their children to be aggressive, though they are not likely to fully realise that.

Originality. A study with the author’s own methodology (questionnaire about the Parental Messages) was conducted among teenagers and the results were compared to the results from the Buss-Durkey inventory.

Author Biography

Irena Levkova, University of Plovdiv. 24 Tsar Assen St. 4000 Plovdiv. Bulgaria

Scientific title: Associate professor, PhD

Biostatment: Irena Levkova is an associate professor of developmental psychology and educational psychology at Plovdiv University Paisii Hilendarski, Bulgaria. She is also a specialist in transactional analysis. Her dissertation is about the use of Rosenzweig’s picture frustration test in the field of transactional analysis.

Occupied position: Associate professor

Address of the scientific institution: 24 Tsar Asen str., Plovdiv, Bulgaria


[1] Stamatov, R. (2008). Child aggression. Plovdiv: Хермес.
[2] Kalchev, P. (2009). Скали за агресия в юношеска възраст [Scale for aggression in adolescence. Part 1]. Sofia: Изток-Запад.
[3] Kalchev, P. (2010). Скали за агресия в юношеска възраст. Част 2. [Scale for aggression in adolescence. Part 2]. Sofia: Изток-Запад.
[4] Koichev, O. (2015a). Възприемане и агресия от ученици и учители в училищна среда [Adoption and aggression by pupils and teachers in a school environment].Психология и общество, 1, 273-285.
[5] Koichev, O. (2015b). Изследване на нормативните възгледи за агресията и просоциалното поведение във взаимоотношенията със съучениците в училище при юноши на 16-18-годишна възраст [Study of the normative perceptions of aggression and pro-social behavior in relationships with schoolmates in adolescents aged 16-18]. Proceedings of the Faculty of Pedagogy Conference Позитивно развитие, 1, 60-73.
[6] Baltadzhieva, J. (2007). Агресия и междуличностни отношения в началното училище [Aggression and Interpersonal Relations at Elementary School]. Academic Journal Management and Education, International Science Conference, Университет Проф. д-р Ас. Златаров, 3(2), 30-37.
[7] Baltadzhieva, J. (2012). Психологическа природа на взаимоотношенията между учениците в ученическия клас на началното училище. Конфликтни взаимоотношения и агресия между децата [The psychological nature of the relationship between pupils in the elementary school class. Conflicting relationships and aggression among children]. National conference. Academy for civil society. Sofia.
[8] Baltadzhieva, J. (2013). Конфликти и агресия между учениците от начална училищна възраст [Conflicts and aggression among pupils of primary school age].Годишник на БСУ, 168-175.
[9] Boyadzhieva, N., Miteva, P. (2008). Гняв и агресивно поведение при децата [Anger and aggressive behavior in children]. Sofia: М-8М.
[10] Velikova-Tsonkova, B. (2015). Ограничаване и превенция на насилието в училище чрез принципите на общностното развитие [Limitation and prevention of school violence through the principles of community development]. Academic Journal Management and Education. XI (4), 16-23.
[11] Bakalova, D. (2003). Съвременни подходи за контрол върху агресията и насилието [Contemporary approaches to control aggression and violence]. Психологични изследвания, бр. 6, кн.1, 69-78.
[12] Levkova, I. (2017а). Психологът (педагогическият съветник) в училище [The psychologist (pedagogical counselor) at school] Национална научно-практическа конференция по психология, сб. Теория и практика, 2, 135-146.
[13] Slavcheva-Andonova, G. (2017). Родителски стратегии за редуциране на детското агресивно поведение [Parental strategies to reduce child aggressive behavior]. В сборник от интердисциплинарна научна конференция на ПФ - „Социално-педагогически аспекти на детското развитие” Plovdiv, Университетско издателство „Паисий Хилендарски”. 217-225.
[14] Tagareva, K. (2017). Психология на развитието в ранна възраст. Диагностика [Psychology of development at an early age. Diagnostics.]. Plovdiv: „УИ „Паисий Хилендарски”.
[15] Brecard, F., Hawkes, L. (2015). The Big Book of Transactional Analysis. Sofia: ARS
[16] Harris, T. (1991). Аз съм добър, Ти си добър [I'm OK – You're OK]. Sofia: Наука и изкуство.
[17] Tocu, R. (2014). Study on the parental beliefs and attitudes towards child rearing and education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 137, 153-157.
[18] Vera, E.M., Daskalova, P., Hill, L. et al. (2017). Parental Messages, School Belonging, Social Skills, and Personal Control as Predictors of Bullying in Ethnic Minority Adolescents. School Mental Health, 9(4), 347–35.
[19] Levkova, I., Marinov, G. & Minchev, P. (2017b). Comparative analysis of the parent messages of Bulgarians and Turks. Academic Journal ‘Management and Education’, International Science Conference, 13 (4), 83-88.
[20] Drego, P. (2009). Bonding the Ethnic Child with the Universal Parent: Strategies and Ethos of a Transactional Analysis Ecocommunity Activist. Transactional Analysis Journal, 39 (3), 193-206.
[21] Shustov, D. (2009). Guide to clinical transactional analysis, Moscow: Когито-центр.
How to Cite
Levkova, I. (2018). Influence of Parental messages on the aggressiveness of teenagers. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 9(1), 50-63.